Gum diseases, also known as periodontal diseases, are inflammatory diseases that affect the gums and other tissues supporting the teeth.

Periodontal diseases are responsible for 70% of tooth loss in adults. When these diseases are diagnosed at an early stage, they can be treated easily and successfully. However, if left untreated, they can progress and lead to loss of teeth.

There are many signs of gum diseases; 

- Bleeding gums during tooth brushing

  • Red, swollen and sensitive gums  
  • Gums that can be easily separated from the teeth and move away
  • Inflammatory discharge between teeth and gums
  • Teeth that wobble or gradually move further apart (gaps between teeth or increased gaps between teeth)
  • Change in the relationship between the upper and lower teeth during biting
  • Change in the fit of removable dentures, deterioration.
  • Persistent bad breath.

The most important cause of gum disease is the sticky and colorless film layer accumulated on the teeth called "bacterial dental plaque".

Removing dental plaque with daily brushing and flossing is the basic requirement for a healthy mouth.

If plaque is not effectively removed from the teeth, it develops into an irregular surface and permeable structure known as calculus or tartar.

Harmful products released by the bacteria in plaque cause irritation of the gums. Because of these products, the fibers that bind the gingiva tightly to the tooth are destroyed, the gingiva moves away from the tooth and a periodontal pocket is formed.

This facilitates the progression of bacteria and their products into deeper tissues. As the disease progresses, the pocket deepens, the bacteria penetrate deeper into the bone and destruction of the alveolar bone supporting the tooth begins.

If the disease is left untreated, the teeth will eventually become loose and may even need to be extracted.

In the majority of cases in the early stage of gum disease, effective daily oral care following scaling, polishing and root planning is sufficient for successful treatment.

More advanced cases may require surgical treatment. The aim of this treatment is to remove calculus from the deep periodontal pockets surrounding the teeth, to shrink and eliminate the pocket, to provide a smooth root surface and to create a more easily cleanable gingival form.

Scaling is not a dangerous or damaging procedure. There may be sensitivity in the teeth after scaling, this is normal. After scaling, the surface previously covered with tartar is exposed and there is sensitivity to cold and heat on this exposed surface. This sensitivity is expected to disappear in three to four days. It is important that the patient does not neglect effective brushing and oral care procedures due to the sensitivity of the teeth.